Olympus EndoTherapy Gastrointestinal Bleeding Procedure


GI bleeding can occur from a disease state, trauma, or endoscopic procedure, and results in approximately 100,000 hospitalizations every year in the U.S. Although there are many effective methods of treatment, the mortality rate is 6-10 percent. Incidence of GI bleeding is two times greater in males than females with no difference in the mortality rate between the sexes. GI bleeding can occur in any part of the GI tract and may require immediate attention for hemostasis (stoppage of bleeding).2

Symptoms of GI Bleeding

Upper GI bleeding (occurs above the ligament of Treitz) can result from:2

  • Peptic ulcer disease (35-50 percent)
  • Gastroduodenal erosions (8-15 percent)
  • Esophagitis (5-15 percent)–commonly GERD, infection, caustic ingestion, or radiation
  • Varices (5-10 percent)
  • Mallory-Weiss tear (15 percent)–bleeding is generally self-limited; however, uncontrolled bleeding may require angiographic therapy or surgery
  • Vascular malformations (5 percent)–sporadic lesions or in association with other disorders such as cirrhosis, renal failure, Dieulafoy’s lesion, etc.

Common causes for lower GI bleeding are2:

  • Diverticulosis (29.6 percent)
  • Angiodysplasia
  • Hemorrhoids (14 percent)
  • Colonic neoplasia/malignancy (6.2 percent)
  • Colitis [radiation/ischemic/ulcerative] (20.5 percent)
  • Intussusceptions [part of the intestine slides into another part]
  • Varices
LocationSymptomsPossible Cause
EsophagusVomiting bright red (blood) or coffee-ground-like material, black stoolsUlcer, varices, liver disease
StomachVomiting bright red (blood) or coffee-ground-like material, black stoolsUlcer, gastritis, varices, Dieulafoy’s lesion
Small intestineBright red/maroon bleedingUlcer, AVMS, tumor, Crohn’s disease
Large intestineBlood in the stoolColon cancer, polyps, colitis, AVMS, diverticula, IBD
Rectum Bright red bleedingHemorrhoids, IBD


Various methods exist to provide hemostasis including

  • Injection therapy
  • Mechanical
  • Thermal
  • Combination of methods

Products Available

2Kovacs, Thomas, MD. "Non-Variceal UGI Bleeding, When and How with What Results". CURE Hemostasis Studies, UCLA and WLA VA Medical Centers, Feb. 29, 2004.

To order endoscopic devices or request an in-person demonstration, contact an Olympus EndoTherapy representative by calling 800.387.0437.

Some devices advertised on this website may not be licensed in accordance with Canadian law

  • ERCP - AccessHemostasis